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Jaunpuri

Distinguishing between Ragas Jaunpuri - Darbari Kanhada- Adana :

The treatment of different Ragas has been a very interesting and at the same time, a very challenging task for the practicing musicians. In order to be successful in this area, it is always felt that aspiring musicians, right from their formative stage, acquire a thorough knowledge of the Ragas, and understand the intricacies properly so that the presentations are marked by authenticity, sensitivity and an eye for beauty, blended with their skill.


The three similar Ragas in this session are Jaunpuri, Darbari Kanhada and Adana.
Pandit Falguni Mitra guides you through some of their essential features:

  1. All these three Ragas belong to Thaat Asavari
  2. All three Ragas use Komal Gandhar, Komal Dhaivat and Komal Nishad. In Adana, Shuddha Nishad is applied additionally.
 

The intrinsic characteristics of these ragas, however, differ :

Jaunpuri Darbari Kanhada Adana
Jaunpuri is soft and pleasing and has simple movements. It is a morning melody. Darbari Kanhada is a majestic night melody, of sombre and serious mood and with restrained emotions. While close to Darbari Kanhada , Adana’s character is somewhat restless – it does not stay on one note long. Adana is also a night melody.
In Jaunpuri, a balanced application of alankars (ornamentations) is adopted. Meends and gamaks are applied widely with telling effect but with enormous care in Darbari Kanhada . In Adana, gamaks are used in good measure but not so much, the meend.
Jati : Shadav-Sampoorna Jati : Sampoorna – Shaadav Jati: Shaadav – Shaadav
Arohan: S R M P d n S
Avrohan: S n d P M g R S
Arohan: S R g, M P d,n S
Avrohan: S d n, P, M P g, M R S
Arohan: S R M P, d, N S
Avaroh: S d N S, d n P, M P, g M R S
Vadi : Dha (komal)
Samavadi : Ga (komal)
Vadi: Re
Samavadi: Pa
Vadi: Sa (Taar saptak)
Samavadi: Pa
Jaunpuri is an Uttaranga pradhan Raga, which means that the development and the movement are mainly in the area – P D N S. There is hardly any scope in the area – S R M. The Gandhar here is Andolit – it swings and is tremulous. The same thing applies to its Dhaivat, but care should be taken to see that the Andolan does not go beyond the required limits. In Darbari Kanhada , the development in the mandra saptak or lower register is very absorbing. g M R S and d n P phrases come back again and again creating a beautiful atmosphere. Here is the ‘chalan’ of Darbari Kanhada . Adana sounds very forceful because of some special note movements.
In Jaunpuri, we use M G R S and not G M R S. Similarly, N D P and not D N P. Microtones or Shrutis play a very highly important role in our Raga Sangeet. In a particular Raga, the Komal Gandhar may be a wee bit lower than the usual Komal Gandhar position. In certain other ragas, this note may be slightly higher. Shrutis are in-built in the ragas – and care should be taken that they are properly understood and applied. The shrutis of G and D in Darbari Kanhada are lower than Jaunpuri’s.  


Here is how Gandhar and Dhaivat are used in Jaunpuri as against Darbari Kanhada .
There is a difference, though very slight and subtle, between the two.
 
Here are the main movements of Jaunpuri and those of Darbari Kanhada , presented side by side .
Note the use of the lower register in Darbari Kanhada .
 
 
    Here are some movements of Adana and Darbari Kanhada , side by side.
    Note that the Arohan or ascent in both Darbari Kanhada and Adana are similar. However, in Adana, the Komal Gandhar is skipped and Shuddh Nishad instead of Komal Nishad is applied. The tempo in Adana is generally faster than Darbari Kanhada (due to its restless nature) and the movement is always upwards – ie, a greater use of the higher notes (uttarang) in the scale while Darbari Kanhada concentrates on the lower and middle registers

Note that while there is a possibility of confusing Darbari Kanhada with Adana, Jaunpuri can never be confused with Adana.
 
Here is a dhamaar composition in Raga Jaunpuri. A Dhamaar is a distinguished form of music, associated with Dhrupad. The mood is of gaiety, depicting the playing of colours between Sri Krishna, Radha and inhabitants of Vrindaban (festival of Holi) - which is actually the theme of most Dhamaar compositions. A few Dhamaar compositions also relate to the monsoons (Dhamaar is also the name of a specific taal of 14 beats). Now, a Dhrupad in Darbari Kanhada composed by Tansen in Tala Choutaal, describing Krishna Finally, here is a lovely composition in Raga Adana, a Dhrupad created by Maharaja Anand Kishor of Betia gharana set to Jhaaptaal, dedicated to Goddess Kali. Jhaptaal comprises 10 beats:


Symbols of Notes: Shuddha - R, G, M, D, N
Gwalior Komal - r, g, d, n
Agra-Atrauli Tivra - M
2001 - 2016 ITC Sangeet Research Academy. A trust promoted by ITC Limited.
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