Terms used in hindustani classical music
 
 
Terms Meaning
Acchop raga Lesser known raga
Aftab-e-Mousiqui An honourable title conferred on an eminent musician.
Alaap/Alapchari Gradual unfolding and development of a raga through monosyllables and without a fixed composition.
Alankar Notes and other features which prominently indicate a raga.
Ang Limb or part ; Raga-ang indicates towards the root to which a given raga might belong.
Apabhramsa Distortion of language.
Baithak Informal music session within the close proximity of the performer.
Bandish A composition that is bound within the frame of a raga. The text, normally in Brijbhasha, provides space for musical elaboration through a felicitous selection of vowels.
Barhat Development of a Raga.
Bhajan Devotional compositions.
Bhakti Devotion.
Bol Text of the lyrics
Bol Bant Rhythmic variations in Dhrupad or Khayal with the text of the song.
Brajbhasha A dialect of Hindi spoken around Mathura in U.P.
Chaiti Folk songs of Uttar Pradesh, sung in the month of Chaitra (March - April).
Chaturang Composition with four distinct features - Khayal, bols of tabla, sargam and tarana.
Dadra Form of semi-classical compositions / idiom.
Deshi A regional version of music, more flexible than the classical style.
Dhak A drum instrument mainly prevalent in Bengal, essentially used during festive season.
Dhamar Ancient form of music set to Dhamar tala of the beats, the text describing colour play between Krishna and Radha and the inhabitants of Vrindaban.
Dhol A drum popularly used for light forms of music.
Dhrupad Ancient,structured form of classical music reigning supreme for centuries in North India before the advent of Khayal.
Drut Fast tempo.
Gamaka A melodic embellishment giving special vibratory effects.
Gayakee Style of singing.
Gharana A concept peculiar to Hindustani Classical music. 'Gharana' is comparable to a style or school of dance or music (vocal/ instrumental). The names of Gharanas are almost always derived from the city, district or state that the founder lived in. Various Gharanas adopted their own particular approach to presentation, technique and repertoire.
Gharana Gayakee Authentic style of singing following a specific gharana.
Gharenadar A musician belonging to a traditional school.
Gul Flower (Literally) - a feature of qawwali
Guru Preceptor who shows the life - path, guide.
Gurukul Abode or a traditional retreat where a guru teaches his students
HariPurana A Hindu scripture.
Jhalak Glimpses.
Jhoola Folk songs of Uttar Pradesh describing swings.
Kalidasa Famous Sanskrit poet.
Kajri Folk music of Uttar Pradesh sung during rains.
Khayal Imagination ; elaboration of a raga with lyrical composition consisting of two stanzas.
Layakari Use of different rhythmic patterns.
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