MEASURING SIMILARITIES ACROSS MUSICAL COMPOSITIONS: AN APPROACH BASED ON THE RAGA PARADIGM* - Monojit Choudhury, Pradipta Ranjan Ray
We take a preliminary look at computational methods of identifying similarity in musical compositions. We have chosen the "Raga" paradigm of Indian classical music as the basis of our formal model since it is well understood and semi-formal in nature. We address the issues of why we need a computational basis of the judgment whether two compositions are similar or not, and why traditional distance metrics fail. The Raga paradigm is discussed and the computational attributes of a raga are defined. Machine learning techniques for assimilating the tuple that formally defines a raga are explored, and matching algorithms for identifying genres of music that have been learnt are proposed. This is essentially a positional paper and we have just started testing some of our models, but current research shows a lot of promise.
Current Trends in Voice Analysis and Research — Multi-Signal Analysis - Nandakumar Radhakrishnan, Ronald C Scherer
This paper is a tutorial on multiple signal acquisition and analysis of voice production. The intent of this tutorial is to emphasize the importance of multi-signal acquisition and analysis for better understanding of voice production for both performance and clinical evaluation. The equipment setup and analysis measures are described followed by their limitations. Examples from the clinic and vocal performance are presented to illustrate potential gains from this approach.
JITTER, SHIMMER AND HNR CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGERS AND NON-SINGERS - R Sengupta, N Dey and Dipali Nag and A K Datta
Small and apparently random perturbations of the vocal waveform’s period and amplitude (viz. Jitter and Shimmer respectively) have received a great deal of attention. In this work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of vocal F0 on Jitter, Shimmer and Harmonic to Noise Ratio (HNR) in the signals of singers and non-singers. Intra-correlations between the above parameters were also studied. Highly trained singers are known to possess a fine skill of pitch control. Jitter, Shimmer and HNR were obtained from the acoustic signal rendered by four singers of both sexes in Hindustani music as well as three male non-singers producing the vowel sound /a/ at different pitches. It was observed that the relationship of HNR with F0 is characteristically different from jitter and shimmer. It was also observed that the values of Jitter and Shimmer are higher in the case of the singers than that of the non-singers. This is hypothesised to be due to the larger control of the singers on the vocal apparatus. No significant difference in these parameters with respect to sex was observed. The study also revealed that the correlation values of the perturbation parameters with F0 have different values on either side of a particular frequency position, i.e., at about 200 Hz for male singers and 250 Hz for female singers.
(Keywords: fundamental frequency (F0), shimmer, jitter, HNR, singer, non-singer, vocal folds).
‘SHRUTI’ AND ‘SWAR’ IN HINDUSTANI MUSIC - R C Tyagi
A `Natural Octave’ of music has been derived from first principles based on physiological response of human ear. It is represented by a geometrical series of twenty-two equi-tonal steps in ascending order of frequencies starting from 249.94 c/s and having a ratio of 21/22 between successive steps. These twenty-two steps represent the `Shrutis’ in Indian Musical System. Realising the seven musical `Swaras’ out of twenty-two `Shrutis’ would represent just another manifestation of the laws of nature which has given us the unique fraction 22/7 = p radians.
AFTER THE FIRST MELODY - R K Das
This is an attempt at a comparative study and critical examination of Persian and Indian classical music to find common points of both music. In the present article, the author tries to explore the process of the development of the most probable first melody referring to the older available treatises on music from Persia, Iran, India and the West.
THE CLASSICAL MUSIC TRADITION OF REWA (M.P.) (In 19th and 20th Century A.D.) - S K Banerjee
Rewa is associated with Tansen and his patron, Raja Ram Chandra Singh Baghela. Tansen’s period of stay was between 1555-1562 A.D. Later, he joined the Royal Court of Emperor Akbar as his foremost court musician. Bade Muhammad Khan, who was attached to the Royal Court of Gwalior left to join the Maharaja of Jaipur from where he took up an assignment with the Court of Rewa at the request of Maharaja Viswanath Singh. Rewa is situated at present in the State of Madhya Pradesh which gradually became a centre for North Indian classical music in the 19th century. Many outstanding musicians, vocalists and instrumentalists joined the Royal Court of Rewa.